Week 15 : Musculoskeletal



 Structure and Functions:

  • Support: body structure and shape
  • Protection: vital organs surrounded
  • Movement/Anchorage of Muscles
  • Mineral Storage: calcium & phosphorus
  • Blood Formation
  • There are 206 bones in the adult human body; 270 bones in babies.


Important Structure in a Bone:

  • Epiphyseal plate is the portion of bone where growth happens. Bones continue to grow until the plate closes.
  • If an Epiphyseal plate is damaged before it ossifies, elongation of the long bone may cease prematurely, or growth maybe uneven.


Two Divisions of the Skeletal System:

  • Axial – includes the following : SKULL (1. Cranium (Temporal bone, Occipital Bone), 2. Ear Bones, 3. Facial Bones ; (Nasal bones, Zygomatic (cheekbones)) B. HYOID, C. VERTEBRAL COLUMN/ SPINAL COLUMN – (1. Cervical, 2. Thoracic / Rib Cage, 3. Lumbar, 4. Sacrum, 5. Coccyx)
  • Appendicular SHOULDER GIRDLE (CLAVICLE / COLLAR BONE and SCAPULA (shoulder blades) B. UPPER EXTREMITIES (Humerus, Ulna, Radius, Carpal, Metacarpal, Phalanges) , C. LOWER EXTREMITIES (Femur, Patella/Knee Cap, Tibia, Fibula, Tarsal, Metatarsal, Phalanges) .


  • Bone Marrow is a soft, netlike mass of connective tissue.
  • Red Marrow- makes red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It is red because it contains hemoglobin. It occupies the cavities of most bones in an infant. In an adult, RM is found in the spongy bone of the skull, ribs, sternum, clavicles, vertebrae, and pelvis.
  • Yellow marrow- stores fat and is inactive in blood cell production.


Some Disorders of Skeletal System;

  • Caries – Also called cavities, it is the major cause of tooth loss
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome – A disorder caused by pressure on the median nerve of the wrist due to repetitive use or trauma
  • Arthritis – A group of disorders evidenced by inflammation of a joint, pain and stiffness during movement
  • Dislocation – When bones move out of their proper location, usually in the shoulder or hip
  • Fracture – A broken bone caused by trauma
  • Osteoma – A bone tumor
  • Osteoporosis – A weakening of the bones


Postural Disorders;

  • Kyphosis – Also called “hunchback” or “humpback,” is an abnormal curvature of the thoracic part of the spine
  • Lordosis – Also called “swayback,” is an abnormal curvature of the lumbar spine
  • Scoliosis – An abnormal lateral spinal curvature



 The characteristics of muscle tissue enable it to perform some important functions, including: (1. Movement – both voluntary & involuntary, 2. Maintaining posture, 3. Supporting soft tissues within body cavities, 4. Guarding entrances & exits of the body, 5. Maintaining body temperature)


Types of Muscle Tissue

  • Skeletal Muscle Tissue – Associated with & attached to the skeleton / Under our conscious (voluntary) control
  • Cardiac Muscle Tissue – Makes up myocardium of heart / Unconsciously (involuntarily) controlled / Microscopically appears striated
  • Smooth Muscle Tissue – Makes up walls of organs & blood vessels / Tissue is non-striated & involuntary / Cells are short, spindle-shaped & have a single nucleus


Some Important muscles in our body;

  • Tongue – one of the toughest muscle in the body responsible for pushing the food to the esophagus and continuous on.
  • Masseter – another strong muscle in the body responsible for chewing food.
  • Trapezius – the muscle that extends from our nape near the broad shoulders back.
  • Biceps – the muscle which is located anteriorly (front) to our right arm or left arm.
  • Triceps –opposite of Biceps is located at the posterior (back) part of the arm.
  • Deltoid – the muscle just above our biceps, common injection site.
  • Pectoralis major – the chest part of a body.
  • Abdominus rectus – the muscled part of the stomach usually forming a six pack muscles in a muscular formed body.
  • Gluteus Maximus – the biggest muscle in the body, which is located in our buttocks.
  • Quadriceps – the hamstrings, the muscles that forms our thighs.



Common Sports Injuries:

  • A sprain is a stretching or tearing of ligaments — the tough bands of fibrous tissue that connect one bone to another in your joints. The most common location for a sprain is in your ankle.
  • A sprain occurs when you overextend or tear a ligament while severely stressing a joint. Sprains often occur in the following circumstances: ( Walking or exercising on an uneven surface / KNEE. Pivoting during an athletic activity / WRIST. Landing on an outstretched hand during a fall / THUMB. Skiing or playing racquet sports, such as tennis)
  • A strain is a stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon, a fibrous cord of tissue that connects muscles to bones. Strains often occur in the lower back and in the hamstring muscle in the back of your thigh.
  • There are two types of strains: Acute and chronic. An acute strain occurs when a muscle becomes strained or pulled — or may even tear — when it stretches unusually far or abruptly. Acute strains often occur in the following ways: (Running, jumping or throwing / Slipping on ice / Lifting a heavy object or lifting in an awkward position )
  • A chronic strain results from prolonged, repetitive movement of a muscle. This may occur on the job or during sports, such as: ( Gymnastics / Tennis / Rowing / Golf )


Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation

  • First aid for strains, sprains, contusions, dislocations, or uncomplicated fractures.
  • REST — Stop using injured part — Continued activity could cause further injury, delay healing, increase pain, and stimulate bleeding — Use crutches to avoid bearing weight on injuries of the leg, knee, ankle, or foot —- Use splint for injuries of the arm, elbow, wrist, or hand
  • ICE  —-  Hastens healing time by reducing swelling around injury —- Sudden cold contracts blood vessels — Helps stop internal bleeding from injured capillaries and blood vessels —- Keep damp or dry cloth between skin and ice pack — Do not apply ice for longer than 15 to 20 minutes at a time —- For 3 days after injury   —– Apply every hour for 10 to 20 minutes  —-  Apply ice after 3 days as long as pain or inflammation persist —- Apply at least 3 times throughout the day for 15 to 20 minutes
  • COMPRESSIONHastens healing time by reducing swelling around injuryDecreases seeping of fluid into injured area from adjacent tissueUse elasticized bandage, compression sleeve, or clothWrap injured part firmlyDo not impair blood supplyToo tight of compression may cause more swellingWrap over ice —- Loosen the bandage if it gets too tight
  • ELEVATION —- Elevate injured part above level of heartDecreases swelling and painUse objects and pillows for props


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